How Fax over IP Works

Understanding how faxes are sent over an IP network requires a basic understanding of the T.30 and T.38 communications protocols. 
   1-T.30 is the protocol that describes the communication process between two fax devices on the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). 
   2-T.38 is the protocol that describes the process for sending and receiving faxes in real-time over a packet network – i.e. a VoIP network. it is designed to work like traditional faxing T.38 is used to encapsulate the traditional T.30 fax protocol for working over IP; it also provides facilities to eliminate the effects of packet loss through data redundancy i.e. previously sent packets are resent.
  Faxing over an IP network requires a fax board or fax software solution that supports FoIP, and a VoIP network with a T.38 gateway that supports Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) . 
    The T.38 gateway acts as a bidirectional bridge between the telephone and IP networks, and sits between the fax server solution and the destination fax device. On the internal VoIP network, the T.38 gateway sends and receives T.30 data wrapped in T.38 packets, while externally it sends and receives T.30 fax signaling over the PSTN.

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