Configure VLANs for CISCO VOIP Phone

What is a LAN?

A LAN is a local area network and is defined as all devices in the same broadcast domain. If you remember, routers stop broadcasts, switches just forward them.
What is a VLAN?
a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) may be defined as a group of LANs that have different physical connections, but which communicate as if they are connected on a single network segment.
When do I need a VLAN?
The VLAN or Virtual LAN is a way to segregate traffic on the network depending on the type and this allows network administrators to dedicate resources to a certain type of data such as VoIP as well as allowing them to craft detailed security policies to prevent specialized hacking attacks. The Cisco switch has the ability to automatically do this by detecting the nature of traffic and applying the appropriate QoS.
You need to consider using VLAN’s in any of the following situations:
    * You have a lot of broadcast traffic on your LAN
    * Groups of users need more security or are being slowed down by too many broadcasts?
    *Groups of users need to be on the same broadcast domain because they are running the same applications. An example would be a company that has VoIP phones. The users using the phone could be on a different VLAN, not with the regular users.
Configure VLANs for CISCO VOIP Phone
1-Put voice traffic on VLAN 10, and data traffic on VLAN 20.
2- Set up one switch as the VTP server, and the others as clients.
3- Use domain TBU, password cisco, and reset revision number to 0.
4- Create VLAN 20 and assign gateway interfaces to VLAN 20. Domain/password are case sensitive!

*-1 On each client, do:
vtp domain temp
vtp domain TBU
vtp mode client
 *-2 On server, do:
vtp mode server
vtp domain TBU
vtp password cisco
vlan 20
name Phones
*-3 On each switch port connecting to a gateway, do:
int fa0/9
switchport access vlan 20
switchport mode access
Configure VLANs for VOIP: plug a VOIP phone into a 35xx port. Verify power over Ethernet:
3550-pwr01# show power inline
Configure VLANs:
3550-pwr01(config-int)# switchport access vlan 10
3550-pwr01(config-int)# switchport mode access
3550-pwr01(config-int)# switchport voice vlan 20
3550-pwr01(config-int)# spanning-tree portfast
3550-pwr01(config-int)# spanning-tree bpduguard enable
Voice traffic travels on VLAN 20; data traffic travels on vlan 10. Verify voice VLAN operation 
3550-pwr01# show interface fa0/1 switchport

ref:Cisco VOIP Command Reference[PDF]


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