SIP trunking three primary components

SIP trunking consists of three primary components. These include:
IP PBX: An IP-based PBX communicates with all endpoints over an IP network. It also switches calls between VoIP users on local lines while allowing all users to share a number of external phone lines. The typical IP PBX can additionally switch calls between a VoIP user and a traditional-telephone user, or between two traditional-telephone users in the same way that a conventional PBX does.

ITSP (Internet telephony service provider): The role of an ITSP is to ensure connectivity to the PSTN from an IP network for mobile and fixed communication devices. It also transports IP communications across a private IP network or public Internet.

Border element: The border element facilitates connectivity between an enterprise IP network,the PSTN and an external IP-carrier network. The border element may be an SIP-capable firewall or a SIP-enabling edge device connected to the firewall, or it can be a switch to transfer calls into and out of the PSTN. Border elements are usually managed by the service provider.

Note that a service provider will typically include SIP trunking as an element of an IP-phone-
system package; it will only be separated into hybrid solutions when there is a need to maintain some locations on a traditional TDM (time-division multiplexing) system, which will connect to the overall IP infrastructure through various border elements and an SIP-trunking service.

Read More: Essential Guide to SIP Trunking.pdf

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